Mahatma Gandhi


Mohandas Karamchand 2 October 1869 - 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist and political moralist who employed non-violent resistance to lead. Successful campaigns for India's independence from British rule, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom around the world. Honorable Mahatma was first implemented in South Africa in 1914, now it is used all over the world.





Born and raised in a Hindu family in coastal India, Western India, trained in law in the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi served nonviolent civil disobedience as a migrant lawyer in South Africa in the Indian community's struggle for civil rights. Of. Worked. After returning to India in 1915, he organized farmers, peasants and urban laborers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Accepting the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi undertook a nationwide campaign to gain more swaraj for various social reasons. Gandhi led the Indians in challenging the salt tax imposed by the British with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930 and later in 1942 asked the British to leave India. He was kept in prison for many years, both in South Africa and India. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore traditional Indian dhoti and shawls woven with yarn hand-spun on the charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political opposition.

Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism demanding a separate Muslim homeland outside India. In August 1947, Britain granted independence. , But the British Indian Empire was divided into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan. All displaced Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, especially in Punjab and Bengal. During the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solitude. In the following months, he took several fasts to prevent religious violence. The last of these, on 12 January 1948, when he was 78 years old, Pakistan was also under pressure from India to pay some cash assets to Pakistan. Some Indians thought that Gandhi was also very sociable. One of them was the Hindu nationalist Nathuram Godse, who killed Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets in his chest.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ,Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ,Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is celebrated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide non-violence day. However, Gandhi is not formally considered the father of the nation in India. Gandhi is also known as Bapu (Gujarati: Beloved to father, father). An Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist and political moralist who employed non-violent resistance to lead. Successful campaigns for India's independence from British rule, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom around the world. Honorable Mahatma was first implemented in South Africa in 1914, now it is used all over the world.

Born and raised in a Hindu family in coastal India, Western India, trained in law in the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi served nonviolent civil disobedience as a migrant lawyer in South Africa in the Indian community's struggle for civil rights. Of. Worked. After returning to India in 1915, he organized farmers, peasants and urban laborers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Accepting the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi undertook a nationwide campaign to gain more swaraj for various social reasons. Gandhi led the Indians in challenging the salt tax imposed by the British with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930 and later in 1942 asked the British to leave India. He was kept in prison for many years, both in South Africa and India. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore traditional Indian dhoti and shawls woven with yarn hand-spun on the charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political opposition.

Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism demanding a separate Muslim homeland outside India. In August 1947, Britain granted independence. , But the British Indian Empire was divided into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan. All displaced Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, especially in Punjab and Bengal. During the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solitude. In the following months, he took several fasts to prevent religious violence. The last of these, on 12 January 1948, when he was 78 years old, Pakistan also had an indirect goal of pressuring India to pay some cash assets.

Early life and background

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar (also known as Sudampuri) to an Indian Gujarati Hindu Mod Baniya family, a coastal town in the Katheshwar peninsula and then part of a small town. Of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), served as the Diwan (Chief Minister) of Porbandar State.

Although he received only elementary education and was previously a clerk in the state administration, Karamchand proved to be a capable chief minister. During his tenure, Karamchand married four times. His first two wives were young, each giving birth to a daughter, and his third marriage was childless. In 1857, Karamchand sought his third wife's permission to remarry; That year, he married Putlibai (1844–1891), who also came from Junagadh, and belonged to a pranami Vaishnava family. Karamchand and Putlibai had three children in the ensuing decade: a son, Lakshmidas a daughter, Rolitaben (1862–1960); And another son, Karandadas (1866–1913).

On 2 October 1869, Putlibai gave birth to her last child, Mohandas, in a dark, windowless ground-floor room in the Gandhi family's residence in Porbandar city. As a child, Gandhi was described by his sister Raliot as "restless as mercury, for sport or for wandering". One of his favorite past was dogs' ears wandering. Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravan and Raja Harishchandra. , Was a great influence on Gandhi in his childhood. In his autobiography, he admitted that he left an indelible impression on his mind. He writes: "It bothered me and I acted Harishchandra many times without number." Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values ​​is available to these epic characters.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ,Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ,Mahatma Gandhi


The family's religious background was liberal. Gandhi's father Karamchand was a Hindu and his mother Putlibai was from a prominent Vaishnava Hindu family. Mod Baniya was of the caste of Vaishya, the father of Gandhi. Her mother came from a medieval Krishna devotional-based pranami tradition, whose religious texts include the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana and a collection of 14 texts that teachings believe the tradition to contain the essence of the Vedas, the Quran and the Bible. Gandhi was deeply impressed by her mother, a very pious woman, who "did not think of taking her meal without her daily prayers ... she took the most difficult vows and kept them unpublished. For two or three consecutive days." Fasting till. " was not.

In 1874, Gandhi's father Karamchand left Porbandar for a small kingdom in Rajkot, where he became an advisor to its ruler Thakur Saheb; Although Rajkot was a less prestigious state than Porbandar, the British regional political agency was located there, which provided protection to the Diwan of the state. In 1876, Karamchand became the Diwan of Rajkot and was succeeded as the Diwan of Porbandar by his brother Tulsidas. Her family reunited her in Rajkot.

At the age of 9, Gandhi entered a local school in Rajkot near his home. There he studied the concepts of arithmetic, history, Gujarati language and geography. At the age of 11, he enrolled in high school in Rajkot. He was an average student, won some awards, but was a shy and tongue-tied student who had no interest in sports; His only companions were books and school lessons.


In May 1883, 13-year-old Mohandas was married to 14-year-old Kasturbai Makhanji Kapadia (her maiden name was usually short for "Kasturba", and was very fond of "Ba" in an arranged marriage) according to custom. . At that time in this area. In the process, he lost a year in school, but was later allowed to make it by accelerating his studies. Their marriage was a joint event, where their brother and cousin were also married. Recalling their wedding day, he once said, "As we did not know much about marriage, for us it meant wearing only new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives." As was the practice, the teenage bride had to spend more time at her parents' home and away from her husband.

After many years, Mohandas expressed regret for the lustful feelings he had felt for his young bride, "Even at school I used to think of him, and sometimes at night and with us Thinks of the appointment. The one who bothers him later makes him feel jealous. His indifference to her, such as he would visit a temple with his girlfriend, and his feelings for her Amukta will.

In late 1885, Gandhi's father Karamchand passed away. Gandhi, then 16 years old, and his wife of 17 years, was his first child, who survived in a few days. Two deaths persecuted Gandhi. The Gandhi couple had four more children, all sons born to Harilal; Manilal, born 1892; Ramdas, who was born in 1897; And Devdas, who was born in 1900.

In November 1887, 18-year-old Gandhi graduated from high school in Ahmedabad. In January 1888, he enrolled at Samaldas College in Bhavnagar State, then the only degree-granting institution to pursue higher education in the region. But he went out and returned to his family in Porbandar.

Three years in london
Law branch student
Gandhi comes from a poor family, and dropped out of the cheapest college he could afford. A Brahmin priest and family friend Mavji Dave Joshiji advised Gandhi and his family that they should consider studying in London. In July 1888, his wife Kasturba gave birth to their first surviving son, Harilal. His mother, except Gandhi and his wife and family, was not comfortable about going so far away from home. Gandhi's uncle Tulsidas also tried to snatch his nephew. Gandhi wanted to go. To persuade his wife and mother, Gandhi made a vow in front of his mother that he would abstain from meat, alcohol and women. Gandhi's brother Lakshmidas, who was already a lawyer, planned Gandhi's London study and offered to support him. Putlibai gave Gandhi her permission and blessings.

On 10 August 1888, Gandhi left Mumbai from Porbandar at the age of 18, then known as Bombay. Upon arrival, he, along with the local Mod Baniya community, was awaiting arrangements for a ship trip. The head of the community knew Gandhi's father. After learning of Gandhi's plans, he and other elders warned Gandhi that England would entice him to compromise his religion, and to eat and drink in Western ways. Gandhi made him aware of his promise to his mother and her blessings. The local chief disregarded it, and excluded him from his caste. But Gandhi ignored it and on 4 September he left for Bombay from Bombay. His brother saw him. Gandhi attended University London which is a constituent college of the University of London.

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